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A Closer Look

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Introduction

Welcome to our wireframe human, whose various bodyparts detail our most significant NGP research to date. To navigate, use the filters on the left-hand side or select a specific anatomical area. You can then scroll through and view relevant studies.

1 Blood

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

Clinical Study Evaluating the PK Profiles of Cigarettes and EVPs with Nicotine Salt Formulations in US Adult Smokers

This study demonstrates the use of nicotine salts in e-cigarettes, while delivering less nicotine than a conventional cigarette, enables cigarette-like pulmonary delivery that reduces desire to smoke.

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Biomarkers of Exposure and Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Function Endpoints in Adult Smokers Using EVPs

This research shows smokers who completely substitute cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experience reductions in exposure to various HPHCs and nicotine.

View

Clinical Study Evaluating the Reduction in HPHCs Following Partial or Complete Substitution of Cigarettes with EVPs

This research shows smokers who completely substitute cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experience reductions in exposure to HPHCs.

View

Evaluation of the Safety Profile of an EVP Used for Two Years by Smokers in a Real-Life Setting

This research demonstrates vape aerosol is well tolerated by adult smokers (i.e. not associated with any clinically relevant health concerns) after up to 24 months of usage.

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2 Exhaled Breath

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

Biomarkers of Exposure and Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Function Endpoints in Adult Smokers Using EVPs

This research shows smokers who completely substitute cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experience reductions in exposure to various HPHCs and nicotine.

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A Randomised, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Safety Profile of an EVP Over 12 Weeks

This study demonstrates no relevant, product-related safety findings for cigarette smokers who transition to vapes for 12 weeks in a real-life setting.

View

Reductions in Biomarkers of Exposure to HPHCs Following Partial or Complete Substitution of Cigarettes with EVPs

This research demonstrates how adult smokers who completely or partially substituted cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experienced reductions in HPHCs measured through biomarkers in urine, blood and exhaled breath.

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Clinical Study Evaluating the Reduction in HPHCs Following Partial or Complete Substitution of Cigarettes with EVPs

This research shows smokers who completely substitute cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experience reductions in exposure to HPHCs.

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3 Lungs

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

Biomarkers of Exposure and Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Function Endpoints in Adult Smokers Using EVPs

This research shows smokers who completely substitute cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experience reductions in exposure to various HPHCs and nicotine.

View

Use of In Vitro Biomarkers From Relevant Primary Cell Systems to Assess the Effects of Experimental and Commercial E-liquid

This TT21C-based research suggests the BioMAP model is able to effectively assess the effects of e-liquids across a wide range of endpoints using in vitro human cells.

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NGP Aerosol Bubbled Extracts Show Little to No Effect in High Content Screening Endpoints Compared to Smoke

This TT21-based study uses High Content Screening (HCS) to indicate the reduced harm potential of vapes compared to cigarettes. blu did not induce any of the endpoints investigated.

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Use of Human 3D Bronchial Tissue to Study the Effects of Cigarette Smoke and EVP Aerosol on Various Cellular Endpoints

This research suggests blu aerosol - from both flavoured and unflavoured e-liquid - had no discernible impact on lung tissue viability, with similar results to the air control. Cigarette smoke resulted in a significant and rapid decrease in viability.

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A Comparison of In Vitro Toxicity Following Repeated Whole Aerosol Exposure to Human Bronchial Tissue for 4 Weeks

This study suggests blu vapour delivers significantly more nicotine compared to cigarettes, without triggering any significant toxicological responses. In fact, tissue integrity was indistinguishable from air control.

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High Content Screening in NHBE Cells Shows Reduced Biological Activity of Flavoured E-liquids, Compared to Cigarette Smoke

This research demonstrates e-liquids induce a significantly lower biological activity compared to cigarette smoke across wide range of cellular endpoints.

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Toxicological Comparison of Cigarette Smoke and EVP Aerosol Using a 3D In Vitro Human Respiratory Model

This TT21C-based research uses an organotypic tissue model to demonstrate both flavoured and unflavoured vape aerosol induce significantly less cytotoxicity than cigarette smoke.

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Use of High Content Screening (HCS) in Human Primary Lung Cells to Assess E-liquids

This TT21-based study uses High Content Screening (HCS) to assess early cellular events in human cell lines and demonstrate vape e-liquids are largely inactive in most of the endpoints tested, in contrast to cigarette smoke.

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NGPs Induce Lower Biological Activity Than Cigarettes - Comparison of Aerosol Chemistry and In Vitro Toxicity

This study demonstrates marked reductions in the emissions and in vitro toxicity of NGPs like vapes and heated tobacco compared to cigarettes.

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Pre-Clinical Assessment of a Dual-Temperature Operated Heated Tobacco Product

This data contributes to the growing body of evidence that NGPs like Pulze offer the potential for substantially reduced exposure to toxicants compared to cigarettes.

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The Use of Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) Assays to Predict the Respiratory and Skin Sensitising Potential of E-liquids

This TT21C-based research indicates GARD assays can successfully differentiate and broadly classify e-liquids based on sensitisation potential.

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Chemical Composition and In Vitro Toxicity Profile of a Pod-Based E-Cigarette Aerosol Compared to Cigarette Smoke

The research indicates blu's harm reduction potential vs. cigarettes across four tests comparing their aerosol composition, cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity.

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4 Cardiovascular

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

NGP vs. Cigarettes Comparison of In Vitro Cell Migration in the Scratch Wound Assay

This TT21C-based research on human endothelial cells suggests NGPs – including vape and heated devices – have the potential to substantially reduce smoking-induced cardiovascular effects.

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Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Function Endpoints and Other Effects: EVPs vs. Cigarettes in Adult Smokers

This study demonstrates reducing smoking led to small improvements in cardiovascular and pulmonary function in individuals who either exclusively vaped or stopped using tobacco and nicotine products over a period of 5 days.

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Use of In Vitro Biomarkers From Relevant Primary Cell Systems to Assess the Effects of Experimental and Commercial E-liquid

This TT21C-based research suggests the BioMAP model is able to effectively assess the effects of e-liquids across a wide range of endpoints using in vitro human cells.

View
5 Skin

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

The Use of Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) Assays to Predict the Respiratory and Skin Sensitising Potential of E-liquids

This TT21C-based research indicates GARD assays can successfully differentiate and broadly classify e-liquids based on sensitisation potential.

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E-Liquids: An Assessment of Dermal Irritancy Potential

This TT21C-based study suggests certain e-liquid flavours can contribute to dermal irritancy potential, as well as demonstrating the viability of this assay as a screening tool.

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6 Urine

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

Clinical Study Evaluating the PK Profiles of Cigarettes and EVPs with Nicotine Salt Formulations in US Adult Smokers

This study demonstrates the use of nicotine salts in e-cigarettes, while delivering less nicotine than a conventional cigarette, enables cigarette-like pulmonary delivery that reduces desire to smoke.

View

Biomarkers of Exposure and Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Function Endpoints in Adult Smokers Using EVPs

This research shows smokers who completely substitute cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experience reductions in exposure to various HPHCs and nicotine.

View

A Randomised, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Safety Profile of an EVP Over 12 Weeks

This study demonstrates no relevant, product-related safety findings for cigarette smokers who transition to vapes for 12 weeks in a real-life setting.

View

Reductions in Biomarkers of Exposure to HPHCs Following Partial or Complete Substitution of Cigarettes with EVPs

This research demonstrates how adult smokers who completely or partially substituted cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experienced reductions in HPHCs measured through biomarkers in urine, blood and exhaled breath.

View

Clinical Study Evaluating the Reduction in HPHCs Following Partial or Complete Substitution of Cigarettes with EVPs

This research shows smokers who completely substitute cigarettes with vapes over 5 days experience reductions in exposure to HPHCs.

View

Evaluation of the Safety Profile of an EVP Used for Two Years by Smokers in a Real-Life Setting

This research demonstrates vape aerosol is well tolerated by adult smokers (i.e. not associated with any clinically relevant health concerns) after up to 24 months of usage.

View
7 Reproductive & Developmental

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

NGPs Predicted to Have No Potential to Induce Developmental Toxicity

This TT21C-based research suggests the DevTOX QuickPredict Assay is able to assess whether vape aerosol has the potential to cause developmental toxicity in humans.

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8 Ambient Air

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

Electronic Cigarettes and Indoor Air Quality: A Simple Approach to Modelling Potential Bystander Exposures to Nicotine

This paper suggests a viable, cost-effective and rapid methodology to assess the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled vape aerosol constituents.

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An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Before, During and After Unrestricted Use of EVPs in a Small Room

This study suggests any constituents present in exhaled vape aerosol are unlikely to present issues to bystanders when compared to the regulatory standards used for workplaces or general indoor air quality.

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Characterisation of Spatial and Temporal Dispersion Differences Between Exhaled EVP Vapour and Cigarette Smoke

Our research suggests exhaled vape particles are formed of rapidly evaporating liquid droplets, while cigarette smoke particles are far more stable and linger.

View

An Assessment of Nicotine Levels on Office Surfaces Before and After Use of EVPs

This study indicates there is little evidence of nicotine deposition on surfaces following vape use, suggesting it's unlikely to pose any issues to bystanders.

View
9 Product Characterisation

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

NGPs Induce Lower Biological Activity Than Cigarettes - Comparison of Aerosol Chemistry and In Vitro Toxicity

This study demonstrates marked reductions in the emissions and in vitro toxicity of NGPs like vapes and heated tobacco compared to cigarettes.

View

Pre-Clinical Assessment of a Dual-Temperature Operated Heated Tobacco Product

This data contributes to the growing body of evidence that NGPs like Pulze offer the potential for substantially reduced exposure to toxicants compared to cigarettes.

View

Chemical Composition of blu Pod-System EVP Aerosols - A Quantitative Comparison with Conventional Cigarette Smoke

This study suggests high quality vapes and e-liquids offer the potential to substantially reduce adult smokers' exposure to cigarette carcinogens and toxicants.

View

Chemical Composition and In Vitro Toxicity Profile of a Pod-Based E-Cigarette Aerosol Compared to Cigarette Smoke

The research indicates blu's harm reduction potential vs. cigarettes across four tests comparing their aerosol composition, cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity.

View
10 Perception & Behavioural

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

Changing Patterns of First EVP Flavour Used and Current Flavors Used by 20,836 Adult Frequent EVP Users in the USA

Conclusions drawn by this study include the suggestion US adult vapers who have transitioned from cigarettes are likely to have initiated their vape use with non-tobacco flavours before moving to non-tobacco flavours.

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Smoking Reduction and Cessation Associated with the Three-Month Provision to Smokers of a Refillable Tank-Style E-Cigarette

This exploratory study suggests providing blu vapes to a sample of adult smokers helped them reduce and even stop smoking cigarettes over 90 days.

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Perceptions of the Relative Harm of Electronic Cigarettes Compared with Smoking in the USA [UPDATE]

This research suggests misperceptions around the relative harms of vapes compared to cigarettes among US adult smokers may deter them from entering the category.

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EVPs: An Assessment of the So-Called 'Gateway Effect' Based on Product Classification

This research addresses regulatory concerns around vaping acting as an on-ramp to cigarette use, and includes our proposals for a product classification framework to assess any ‘gateway' effects.

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11 Multi-Organ

We don’t currently have any published research available in this specific area. However, it’s likely there will be various studies in development. Please check back soon or take a look at Our Thoughts and What’s Happening.

QRA Indicates Reduced Risk Potential for Carcinogenic and Non-carcinogenic Effects of NGP Aerosol Compared to Smoke

These research results indicate vape and heated tobacco aerosols have the potential to achieve a marked reduction in both non-cancer and cancer risks compared to cigarette smoke.

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Snus: A Compelling Harm Reduction Alternative to Cigarettes

This literature review suggests available scientific data - including long-term population studies - demonstrate the health risks associated with snus are considerably lower than cigarettes.

View

Next Generation Products Induce Lower Biological Activity than Combusted Cigarettes Using BioMAP® System

This TT21C-based research suggests NGPs produce fewer – or no – reproducible alterations to multiple human biomarkers. In contrast, cigarette smoke produces multiple significant alterations.

View

A Randomised, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Safety Profile of an EVP Over 12 Weeks

This study demonstrates no relevant, product-related safety findings for cigarette smokers who transition to vapes for 12 weeks in a real-life setting.

View

Evaluation of the Safety Profile of an EVP Used for Two Years by Smokers in a Real-Life Setting

This research demonstrates vape aerosol is well tolerated by adult smokers (i.e. not associated with any clinically relevant health concerns) after up to 24 months of usage.

View

Use of In Vitro Biomarkers From Relevant Primary Cell Systems to Assess the Effects of Experimental and Commercial E-liquid

This TT21C-based research suggests the BioMAP model is able to effectively assess the effects of e-liquids across a wide range of endpoints using in vitro human cells.

View

NGPs Induce Lower Biological Activity Than Cigarettes - Comparison of Aerosol Chemistry and In Vitro Toxicity

This study demonstrates marked reductions in the emissions and in vitro toxicity of NGPs like vapes and heated tobacco compared to cigarettes.

View

Pre-Clinical Assessment of a Dual-Temperature Operated Heated Tobacco Product

This data contributes to the growing body of evidence that NGPs like Pulze offer the potential for substantially reduced exposure to toxicants compared to cigarettes.

View