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As a responsible manufacturer, we’ve devised a scientific assessment framework to assess the harm reduction potential of our NGPs compared to combustible cigarettes.

Components of this framework are partly based on the US National Academy of Science’s innovative blueprint for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (TT21C).

TT21C advocates the use of in-vitro testing using human cells as a more relevant alternative to traditional in-vivo testing. Since human cells are prioritised in TT21C, no animal testing occurs – making TT21C a more ethical alternative and consistent with our wider corporate position not to test on animals.

Our scientists are utilising a series of TT21C-driven assays to test the impact of our NGPs on relevant user health-related endpoints. When combined with, and verified by, data gathered from relevant human clinical studies, they allow us to scientifically substantiate the tobacco harm reduction potential of our NGP portfolio.

Explore the interactive table below to discover more about our previous, current and future TT21C-related research.

OECD Regulatory Assays

These are assays approved by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), accepted by various regulatory bodies across the world. These assays focus on genotoxicity.

Ames assay: Used to identify compounds that can cause spontaneous point mutations to DNA bases, including base pair substitutions, deletions or duplications. These events may ultimately lead to cancer susceptibility.

In-vitro Micronucleus (IVM) assay: DNA in human cells is packed into 26 chromosomes. Loss of part or all a chromosome can have major effects on the cell. This assay detects compounds causing DNA chromosomal alterations, leading to potential disruptions in cell function.

Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay: The uptake of neutral red dye provides a visual, quantitative estimation of the number of living cells in a culture. When tested at various concentrations, it also illustrates at what kinds of exposure concentrations cell death occurs. Generally, higher cytotoxicity values indicate fewer toxic substances.